Using Bayesian Networks to Identify the Causal Effect of Speeding in Individual Vehicle/Pedestrian Collisions
On roads showing significant violations of posted speed limits, one measure of the safety effect of speeding is the difference between the road's actual accident count and the count that would have occurred if the posted speed limit had been strictly obeyed. An estimate of this accident reduction can be had by computing the probability that speeding was a necessary condition for each of set of accidents. This is an instance of assessing individual probabilities of causation, which is generally not possible absent prior knowledge of causal structure. For traffic accidents such prior knowledge is often available and this paper illustrates how, for a commonly occurring class of vehicle/pedestrian accidents, approaches to uncertainty and causal analyses appearing in the accident reconstruction literature can be unified using Bayesian networks. Measured skidmarks, pedestrian throw distances, and pedestrian injury severity are treated as evidence, and using the Gibbs Sampling routine BUGS, the posterior probability distribution over exogenous variables, such as the vehicle's initial speed, location, and driver reaction time, is computed. This posterior distribution is then used to compute the "probability of necessity" for speeding.
PDF Link: /papers/01/p105-davis.pdf
AUTHOR = "Gary Davis
TITLE = "Using Bayesian Networks to Identify the Causal Effect of Speeding in Individual Vehicle/Pedestrian Collisions",
BOOKTITLE = "Proceedings of the Seventeenth Conference Annual Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence (UAI-01)",
PUBLISHER = "Morgan Kaufmann",
ADDRESS = "San Francisco, CA",
YEAR = "2001",
PAGES = "105--111"