Inductive Policy Selection for First-Order MDPs
Sung Wook Yoon, Alan Fern, Robert Givan
We select policies for large Markov Decision Processes (MDPs) with compact first-order representations. We find policies that generalize well as the number of objects in the domain grows, potentially without bound. Existing dynamic-programming approaches based on flat, propositional, or first-order representations either are impractical here or do not naturally scale as the number of objects grows without bound. We implement and evaluate an alternative approach that induces first-order policies using training data constructed by solving small problem instances using PGraphplan (Blum & Langford, 1999). Our policies are represented as ensembles of decision lists, using a taxonomic concept language. This approach extends the work of Martin and Geffner (2000) to stochastic domains, ensemble learning, and a wider variety of problems. Empirically, we find "good" policies for several stochastic first-order MDPs that are beyond the scope of previous approaches. We also discuss the application of this work to the relational reinforcement-learning problem.
PDF Link: /papers/02/p568-yoon.pdf
AUTHOR = "Sung Wook Yoon
and Alan Fern and Robert Givan",
TITLE = "Inductive Policy Selection for First-Order MDPs",
BOOKTITLE = "Proceedings of the Eighteenth Conference Annual Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence (UAI-02)",
PUBLISHER = "Morgan Kaufmann",
ADDRESS = "San Francisco, CA",
YEAR = "2002",
PAGES = "568--576"