Kevin Korb, Ann Nicholson, Nathalie Jitnah
Poker is ideal for testing automated reasoning under uncertainty. It introduces uncertainty both by physical randomization and by incomplete information about opponents hands.Another source OF uncertainty IS the limited information available TO construct psychological models OF opponents, their tendencies TO bluff, play conservatively, reveal weakness, etc. AND the relation BETWEEN their hand strengths AND betting behaviour. ALL OF these uncertainties must be assessed accurately AND combined effectively FOR ANY reasonable LEVEL OF skill IN the game TO be achieved, since good decision making IS highly sensitive TO those tasks.We describe our Bayesian Poker Program(BPP), which uses a Bayesian network TO model the programs poker hand, the opponents hand AND the opponents playing behaviour conditioned upon the hand, and betting curves which govern play given a probability of winning. The history of play with opponents is used to improve BPPs understanding OF their behaviour.We compare BPP experimentally WITH : a simple RULE - based system; a program which depends exclusively ON hand probabilities(i.e., without opponent modeling); AND WITH human players.BPP has shown itself TO be an effective player against ALL these opponents, barring the better humans.We also sketch out SOME likely ways OF improving play.
Keywords: Bayesian networks, Game playing, Uncertain reasoning
PS Link: ftp://ftp.cs.monash.edu.au/pub/annn/UAI99.ps
PDF Link: /papers/99/p343-korb.pdf
AUTHOR = "Kevin Korb
and Ann Nicholson and Nathalie Jitnah",
TITLE = "Bayesian Poker",
BOOKTITLE = "Proceedings of the Fifteenth Conference Annual Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence (UAI-99)",
PUBLISHER = "Morgan Kaufmann",
ADDRESS = "San Francisco, CA",
YEAR = "1999",
PAGES = "343--350"